Since 2020, President Xi Jinping has repeatedly pointed out that we should promote the formation of a new development pattern based on domestic circulation as the main body and mutual promotion between domestic circulation and international circulation. In his speech at a symposium of experts in the economic and social fields on August 24, 2020, he again emphasized that “the new development pattern is not a closed domestic circulation, but an open domestic and international dual circulation.” President Xi clearly requested at this symposium that we should “adhere to opening up and innovation, strengthen international S & T exchanges and cooperation”. His speech not only pointed out the direction for innovating international S & T cooperation for mutual benefit, but also provided a new blueprint for it during the period of the 14th Five-Year Plan.
With the escalation of economic and trade friction between China and the United States as well as the intensification of international competition in science and technology, China is faced with a great challenge in terms of international S & T cooperation. We have to change our conception and innovate the ways of cooperation. Opening up and innovation have become the key words in international S & T cooperation. The effective linkage between international S & T cooperation and opening up and innovation is a specific requirement in the new period to “achieve a high level of opening to the outside world and promoting high-quality development”. It is the new requirements made by President Xi for the Fifth International S & T Cooperation Plan on the basis of the successful implementation of the previous four five-year plans for international S & T cooperation.